I Have a Hard Time Summing Up My Science and Politics Beliefs Into a Slogan

From a half-joking, half-serious post of my own on Facebook:

“SCIENCE IS POLITICAL BECAUSE THERE’S LOT OF INFLUENCE BY POLITICAL AND POWERFUL CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS, BUT NOT PARTISAN. AND ALSO THAT SCIENTIFIC RESULTS AFFECT MORE OF OURS LIVES. BUT LIKE MAN, WE REALLY SHOULDN’T DO THE WHOLE TECHNOCRACY THING. BUT LIKE EVIDENCE SHOULD MATTER. BUT ALSO VALUES MATTER WHEN EVALUATING STUFF. IT’S COMPLICATED. HAS ANYONE READ LATOUR? OR FEYERABEND? CAN SOMEONE EXPLAIN FEYERABEND TO ME? DOES ANYONE WANT TO GET DRINKS AND TALK AFTER THIS?”

the_end_is_not_for_a_while

Evidently, I am the alt-text from this comic.

“HERE ARE SOME GOOD ARTICLES ABOUT PHILOSOPHY AND SOCIOLOGY OF SCIENCE” (I didn’t actually give a list, since I knew I would never really be able to put that on a poster, but some suggested readings if you’re interested: the Decolonizing Science Reading List curated by astrophysicist Chanda Prescod-Weinstein, a recent article from The Atlantic about the March for Science, a perspective on Doing Science While Black, the history of genes as an example of the evolution of scientific ideas, honestly there’s a lot here, and this is just stuff I shared on my Facebook page over the last few months.)
“LIKE HOLY SHIT Y’ALL EUGENICS HAPPENED”
“LIKE, MAN, WE STERILIZED A LOT OF PEOPLE. ALSO, EVEN BASIC RESEARCH CAN BE MESSED UP. LIKE TUSKEGEE. OR LITERALLY INJECTING CANCER INTO PEOPLE TO SEE WHAT HAPPENS. OR CRISPR. LIKE, JEEZ, WHAT ARE WE GOING TO DO WITH THAT ONE? SOCIETY HELPS DETERMINE WHAT IS APPROPRIATE.”
“I FEEL LIKE I’M GOING OFF MESSAGE. BUT LIKE WHAT EXACTLY IS THE MESSAGE HERE”
“I DON’T KNOW WHAT THE MESSAGE IS, BUT THESE ARE PROBABLY GOOD TO DO. ESPECIALLY IF THEY INSPIRE CONVERSATIONS LIKE THIS.”
“ALSO, DID YOU KNOW THAT MULTICELLULAR LIFE INDEPENDENTLY EVOLVED AT LEAST 10 TIMES ON EARTH? I’M NOT GOING ANYWHERE WITH THAT, I JUST THINK IT’S NEAT AND WE DON’T TYPICALLY HEAR THAT IN INTRO BIO.”
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Where are all the engineering blogs?

I was browsing through Dynamic Ecology recently on my reader to catch up on end-of-2015 posts and was intrigued by one of the author’s comments on why there isn’t really an ecology blogosphere. And though I’ve pondered it before, this makes me wonder where the engineering blogosphere is. I don’t have much evidence to back up the loading of that question, but I’ve been in grad school for engineering for 3.5 years now, and it’s worth noting that I still haven’t heard of any major engineering blogs people follow. And the sheer randomness of Blogmetric’s ranking of engineering blogs seems to corroborate this: only the top 2 of the ranked engineering blogs are tracked to have over 100 visitors a month. A Github list of engineering blogs (which is currently the first result for Googling “engineering blogs”) seems incredibly focused on tech company blogs and IT/programming/development.

Engineering.com’s blog seems to have ended without even a goodbye at the end of 2014. Engineer Blogs has been radio silent since September of 2012. And the American Chemical Society’s magazine, Chemical & Engineering News, closed up nearly all of its blogs in mid-2014, with an explanation implying this was because they were viewed as a drain on resources that could be more productively used for other tasks. Chemical Engineering World (which as far as I can tell, is a personal blog and not affiliated to the Indian publication of the same name) seems to have just came back after a hiatus.

The Dynamic Ecology post’s second point on ecology not being very news-driven sounds compelling to me as a reason that could easily cross-apply to engineering, especially if you’re trying to move away from just tech company gossip. Having something well-known to react to can make it easier to post content that’ll actually engage readers because they start searching for it. Point 1 of the Neuroecology post’s on neuroscience lacking a blogosphere because neuroscience bloggers focus more on outreach to general audiences than technical exchanges with each other also seems valid. What’s interesting is the comparison I’m making. As Jeremy from Dynamic Ecology points out, the general science blogosphere is pretty vibrant. He and the Neuroecologist are focusing more on the lack of interacting blogging communities in specific disciplines. Engineering seems to lack this at both levels. I also wonder about some specific issues in engineering that can contribute to this.

  • Is engineering too broad to have a meaningful blogosphere? I see two distinct forces here.
    • First, is the breadth of engineering disciplines. I could see it being hard for there to be a lot of substantive discussion between, say, a chemical engineer and a computer scientist on a broad range of topics.
    • Second, there’s the huge influence of a lot of engineering actually being done in industry. I’m not going to say academic and corporate engineers don’t talk to each other, but it would also be dumb to pretend they have the same interests in how they approach outreach.
  • Is engineering too tied into the science blogosphere? (I wondered a similar thing last time I posted about engineers and outreach) Interested scientists and science writers can (and do) do a good job of explaining concepts and results from related engineering fields. For instance, Dot Physics is written by a physicist who routinely covers topics that are related to technology and engineering. On the opposite end, I clearly try to cover science topics that I think I can explain, even if I’m not experts in them. Randall Munroe straddles the border a lot in What If? and Thing Explainer.
  • You might think I’m treading around one obvious potential component of an engineering blogosphere, and that’s tech blogs. But engineering isn’t just “tech companies”, which in modern parlance seems to really just mean computer and Internet companies. (I’ve somewhat ranted about this before in the last two paragraphs of this post.) A lot of stuff also goes on in physical infrastructure that engineers could talk about. And in an era where the Internet seems increasingly interested in discussion of how system shapes our lives, it seems like we’re missing out if the people who help shape physical systems don’t share their voices.

Edit to add: I also realize I didn’t include any discussion about Twitter here, mainly because I’m still a novice there. But I still haven’t seen very long discussions on specific engineering issues on Twitter, though I assume tech is the exception again.

Red Eye Take Warning – Our Strange, Cyclical Awareness of Pee in Pools

The news has been abuzz lately with a terrifying revelation: if you get red eye at the the pool, it’s not from the chlorine, it’s from urine. Or to put it more accurately, from the product of chlorine reacting with a chemical in the urine. In the water, chlorine easily reacts with uric acid, a chemical found in urine, and also in sweat, to form chloramines. It’s not surprising that this caught a lot of peoples’ eyes, especially since those product chemicals are linked to more than just eye irritation. But what’s really weird is what spurred this all on. It’s not a new study that finally proved this. It’s just the release of the CDC’s annual safe swimming guide and a survey from the National Swimming Pool Foundation. But this isn’t the first year the CDC mentioned this fact: an infographic from 2014’s Recreational Water Illness and Injury Prevention Week does and two different posters from 2013 do (the posters have had some slight tweaks, but the Internet Archive confirms they were there in 2013 and even 2012), and on a slightly related note, a poster from 2010 says that urine in the pool uses up the chlorine.

A young smiling boy is at the edge of a swimming pool, with goggles on his forehead.

My neighborhood swim coach probably could have convinced me to wear goggles a lot earlier if she told me it would have kept pee out of my eyes.

Here’s what I find even stranger. Last year there was a lot of publicity about a study suggesting the products of the chlorine-uric acid reaction might be linked to more severe harm than just red eye. But neither Bletchley, the leader of study, and none of the articles about it link the chemicals to red eye at all, or even mention urine’s role in red eye in the pool. Also, if you’re curious about the harm, but don’t want to read the articles, the conclusion is that it doesn’t even reach the dangerous limits for drinking water. According to The Atlantic, Bletchley is worried more that it might be easier for an event like a swimming competition to easily deplete the chlorine available for disinfecting a pool in only a short amount of time. This seems strange because it seems like a great time to bring up that eye irritation can be a decent personal marker for the quality of the pool as a way to empower people. If you’re at a pool and your eyes feel like they’re on fire or you’re hacking a lot without swallowing water, maybe that’s a good sign to tell the lifeguard they need to add more chlorine because most of it has probably formed chloramines by then.

Discussion of urine and red eye seems to phase in and out over time, and actually even the focus of whether its sweat or urine does too. In 2013, the same person from the CDC spoke with LiveScience and they mention that the pool smell and red eye is mainly caused by chloramines (and therefore urine and sweat), not chlorine. A piece from 2012 reacting to a radio host goes into detail on chloramines. During the 2012 Olympics, Huffington Post discussed the irritating effects of chloramines on your body, including red eye, and the depletion of chlorine for sterilization after many Olympic swimmers admitted to peeing in the pool. (Other pieces seem to ignore that this reaction happens and assume it’s fine since urine itself doesn’t have any compounds or microbes that would cause disease.) In 2009, CNN mentions that the chloramines cause both red eye and some respiratory irritation. The article is from around Memorial Day, suggesting it was just a typical awareness piece. Oh, and they also refer to a 2008 interview with Michael Phelps admitting that Olympians pee in the pool. The CDC also mentions chloramines as potential asthma triggers in poorly maintained and ventilated pools and as eye irritants in a web page and review study that year. In 2008, the same Purdue group published what seems like the first study to analyze these byproducts, because others had only looked at inorganic molecules. There the health concern is mainly about respiratory problems caused by poor indoor pool maintenance because these chemicals can start to build up. Nothing about red eye is mentioned there. In 2006, someone on the Straight Dope discussion boards refers to a recent local news article attributing red eye in the pool to chlorine bonding with pee or sweat. They ask whether or not that’s true. Someone on the board claims it’s actually because chlorine in the pool forms a small amount of hydrochloric acid that will always irritate your eyes. A later commenter links to a piece by Water Quality and Health Council pinning chloramine as the culprit. An article from the Australian Broadcasting Corporation talks about how nitrogen from urine and sweat is responsible for that “chlorine smell” at pools, but doesn’t mention it causing irritation or just using up chlorine that could go to sterilizing the pool.

Finally, I just decided to look up the earliest mention possible by restricting Google searches to earlier dates. Here is an article from the Chicago Tribune in 1996.

There is no smell when chlorine is added to a clean pool. The smell comes as the chlorine attacks all the waste in the pool. (That garbage is known as “organic load” to pool experts.) So some chlorine is in the water just waiting for dirt to come by. Other chlorine is busy attaching to that dirt, making something called combined chlorine. “It’s the combined chlorine that burns a kid’s eyes and all that fun stuff,” says chemist Dave Kierzkowski of Laporte Water Technology and Biochem, a Milwaukee company that makes pool chemicals.

We’ve known about this for nearly 20 years! We just seem to forget. Often. I realize part of this is the seasonal nature of swimming, and so most news outlets will do a piece on being safe at pools every year. But even then, it seems like every few years people are surprised that it is not chlorine that stings your eyes, but the product of its reaction with waste in the water. I’m curious if I can find older things from LexisNexis or journal searches I can do at school. (Google results for sites older than 1996 don’t make much sense, because it seems like the crawler is picking up more recent related stories that happen to show up as suggestions on older pages.) Also, I’m just curious about the distinction between Bletchley’s tests and pool supplies that measure “combined chlorine” and chloramine, which is discussed in this 2001 article as causing red eye. I imagine his is more precise, but Bletchley also says people don’t measure it, and I wonder why.

Let’s Rethink Science Journalism

There’s been a lot of talk about science journalism after the revelation that a heavily publicized study about chocolate helping weight loss was actually a sham. A great deal of this is meta-commentary about whether or not the whole “sting” was ethical or if it even added much to ongoing discussions on science communication. It’s worth pointing out that science journalism in major outlets could be said to work for the most part, as they didn’t actually report on the study. The ScienceNews piece points out that a Washington Post reporter did want to write up something on the study and dropped it when he became suspicious. HuffPo would be the obvious exception in that they evidently had TWO pieces at one point on the study, but it’s science and health sections have historically been pretty questionable. (The science section has gotten better lately. I don’t know about the health section.)

I’m going to mainly focus on science in general publications, because that’s what most people see. And because science journalism in general publications has a weird organization. The standard treatment seems to be that a science journalist should be able to write on any science topic, regardless of background. That increasingly strikes me as strange. The conceptual difference between, say, astronomy and neuroscience is huge. That’s not to say people can’t be good at covering multiple fields of science. Rachel Feltman at The Washington Post wonderfully covers developments from all over science. But I think we should recognize that this is an incredible talent that not everyone has. (Indeed, going over HuffPo’s recent pieces, it’s notable how many seem to come from actual scientists now compared to what seemed like a never-ending stream of uncredited articles probably coming from anyone with an Internet connection a few years ago.)

A man is shown looking slightly up. Floating above his head are a moon, frog, butterflies, crystals, and some other objects, perhaps representing his thoughts or ideas.

It’s hard to actually have all this in your head.

Pretending that all science writers can cover everything harms science journalism. Where I think this shows up particularly clear is coverage of work done by children. For instance, consider last year’s story about the 12-year-old who supposedly made a major breakthrough about lionfish. Let’s be clear: Lauren did a lot of research for a 12-year-old and contributed a lot to a science lab and we should celebrate that. But so many outlets either exagerrated the claims of her father or took his overly hyped claims too much at face value, because it seems like none of these original reporters had any idea where her project fit in with other research. Similarly, there was the 15-year-old who said to have “invented a way to charge your phone”, but his project was similar to research that has been done for years (but again, Angelo ended up doing a lot of work for his age and seemed to develop a way to make it more effective).

I don’t think there’s a reason why a publication couldn’t cover all its science section by having more specialized journalists who also happened to work outside of science. For example, maybe someone covering physical sciences could also cover engineering and manufacturing firms for business reporting and someone else could be on a combined life sciences/health beat. And someone who can specialize and keep up to date on a smaller area can probably toss out names that better reflect the diversity of the research community instead of just pulling up the same few powerful people who typically get referenced . In fact, probably one of the best trends in science coverage over the last decade has been the proliferation of pieces focusing on social implications of science and also pieces that focus on how science is shaped by society. Reporting like that would benefit from more journalists and communicators who cover things both inside and outside of science and can give voice to diverse groups. And also, it would be great if these pieces actually called on scholars in the sociology, history, and/or philosophy of science and technology to help inform these pieces.

It is an image announcing a panel discussion, entitled

Discussions like this reflect important discussions in society that need to happen in science, too. And they’re at their best when people can understand science and society.

Public Health Involves Science Communication, Too

This tweet has been making the rounds on social media lately.

I actually think the tweet is funny, but I’m really tired with the way media seems to be considering actual policy concerns with it. Cutting off flights would have seriously hampered the Ebola response. But there is in fact a different policy used for traveling to/from regions with vaccine-preventable outbreaks: it is often recommended that you go and get the vaccine before travelling there or if you are from a region with an outbreak, you may be asked to prove you have been immunized. It would be perfectly reasonable for Nigeria and other countries to demand American travellers prove that they are vaccinated against measles as part of obtaining a visa. That policy isn’t possible with diseases without vaccines that we don’t have effective, standard treatments for.

And this has become an increasing concern of mine with so much of the coverage about the measles outbreak. There is actually a well-documented literature about effective science communication, but based on news articles, you wouldn’t know it exists. The idea that science communication is only about filling people’s head with scientific knowledge (the “bucket model”) has been discredited for over 20 years. Treating your audience snarkily like they know nothing (or really, treating your actual, narrow audience like they’re geniuses and everyone in the outgroup like they’re insane) has never really been shown to be effective in technical matters despite half the business model of Mic and Gawker.

Scientists and “Being Smart”, part 1: Relating to “Normal”

The always wonderful Chad Orzel has just written a new book and New York magazine published a fascinating excerpt that’s been resonating a lot with my friends, science-minded and non-science-minded alike. Orzel relates how people often tell him that he’s so smart when they learn that he’s a physicist. While it is incredibly flattering to have other people say you must be smart, Orzel points out it comes with an unacknowledged downside:

There’s a distracting effect to being called “really smart” in this sense — it sets scientists off as people who think in a way that’s qualitatively different from “normal” people. We’re set off even from other highly educated academics — my faculty colleagues in arts, literature, and social science don’t hear that same “You must be really smart” despite the fact that they’ve generally spent at least as much time acquiring academic credentials as I have. The sort of scholarship they do is seen as just an extension of normal activities, whereas science is seen as alien and incomprehensible.

A bigger problem with this awkward compliment, though, is that it’s just not true. Scientists are not that smart — we don’t think in a wholly different manner than ordinary people do. What makes a professional scientist is not a supercharged brain with more processing power, but a collection of subtle differences in skills and inclinations. We’re slightly better at doing the sort of things that professional scientists do on a daily basis — I’m better with math than the average person — but more importantly, we enjoy those activities and so spend time honing those skills, making the differences appear even greater.

A friend in law school argued that this can be a benefit: people seem to have fewer uninformed opinions that they’re compelled to share regarding fluid dynamics than philosophy. I think that’s true to a point, though people also have lots of uninformed opinions on issues that are more controversial, like GMOs, ecology, and climate science. What I think is useful to consider is the nature of how all these fields relate to their people’s lives. People use the end results (whether that’s a tangible product or knowledge) of scientific and engineering research, but they don’t need an understanding of those systems to be able to use their products. People are in sociological, cultural, and political systems everyday and so they have at least a folk or commonsense understanding of how those things work, and so they react when people in these fields tell them their knowledge is incomplete, if not often wrong.

But you also see this a bit in misunderstanding of science: part of the reason people have strong opinions on things like food, ecosystems, and the climate is that they also interact with those systems everyday, and so they have a folk understanding of those too. The discrepancy between someone’s folk understanding and that of a scientific observer is why we have the”this winter is cold so global warfming is a myth” meme. There’s a reason this meme is so resonant to some, though. It’s common in science communication to just treat non-scientists as empty buckets waiting to be filled with scientific information that they’ll appreciate (or maybe even “f***ing love” it), and to assume the major limit in public understanding of science and scientific issues is that they just don’t know enough. This is called the deficit model, and what’s key to know about it is that it is typically wrong. It’s true that a random non-scientist won’t know as much about a given scientific field as someone actually working it. (There is a good chance they know something about it and you should engage that, though). What’s really important, though, is that people don’t engage with science in a vacuum. Everyone brings their own baggage, in the forms of folk knowledge, cultural assumptions, moral values, and more. Scientists, and science communicators more broadly, need to engage with those issues beyond just pure scientific knowledge to truly engage with the public, otherwise people think you’re treating them like idiots.

It’s also generally more interesting to approach science communication this way. Sure, I like informing people of the latest trends and results from research (and studies show people are interested in science news) or other neat concepts that come up in my work and as someone in the field, I’m more aware of this information. But I’m not going to have an equal back and forth about the topic of my old research with most people at UVA, except for the dozen or so people working on similar projects, because it took several years to get to that point. And that can be fine! I know I listen to law students, history majors, sociology majors, philosophy majors, policy students, biologists, and more have incredibly deep conversations on their areas of expertise all the time and learn a lot just from listening.

Even without finding someone who studies the sociology of science and technology, though, I can probably have an interesting conversation with almost anyone about social or ethical implications/questions related to my work. When I did work on the CO2 converstion project, lots of people right away grasped at the implications for climate change work. And that’s the kind of conversation that’s probably most helpful in grounding science and engineering into normalcy.

This is also why I tend to hate saying I “dumb down” things if I’m talking to people outside of my fields. There’s 11 schools at UVA and over 100 academic programs and I know people in all those are “really smart” and they are also all smarter than me in several things. (And of course, as Orzel points, this extends way beyond other people in academia or even college graduates; it’s just that my life is still mostly school.) The reason I change how I talk isn’t because these other people outside my lab and department are dumb; it’s to acknowledge that they all have expertise in different areas than I do and I want to share some of my expertise with them (without forcing them to also have all my training) in a way they can appreciate. Meeting people where they are is generally just good practice and science communication is no exception.

News Publications without Science Sections

Inspired by Dr. Danielle Lee’s recent Twitter musings that STEM coverage directed towards minority communities is rare, which is compounded by the lower recognition that black scientists, engineers, and technologists get in their professional communities and the lack of STEM-focused coverage in African American media, I was curious to see how other major “thought leader” publications fared.

No Science or Science-Related Sections

JET – Though the website seems more lifestyle-focused than I expected, so maybe this is unfair

The National Review – Okay, their website is confusing, because I see a “Space” tag that doesn’t actually lead anywhere and they evidently have a “Planet Gore” section that is devoted to what they view as climate change hypocrisy. “Human Exceptionalism” is probably notable as the only column that routinely talks about bioethics in mainstream political publications.

No Science Sections, but Tech(nology), Health, or Other Science-Related Sections

The New Republic – Has a Technology section, which mainly seems to exist chronicle technical developments as they relate to politics or the economy

The Atlantic – Has Health and Tech sections, with science stories kind of split between them

EBONY – Has health (subsection of Wellness) and tech (subsection of Life); tech seems more consumer focused

The Daily Beast – has a combined “Tech + Health” section

ABC News – Has Tech and Health sections, and strangely, in that order

CNN – Has Tech and Health sections

MSNBC – Has Health and a “Green” section

NewsOne – Has a Health section

Some surprises

In contrast to ABC, CBS News has a joint Science and Technology section and a separate Health section and NBC News has separate Health, Tech, and Science sections.

Similarly, Fox News has separate TechScience, and Health sections, and I would have expected them to parallel CNN in structure. Also, I’m really surprised that they list Health as the last of those sections since if the stereotype of Fox News watchers/readers as being older holds true, I would expect them to be more interested in health and wellness articles.