Like I said before, Hank Campbell’s had some interesting critiques of the first episode of Cosmos. I thought nearly all of them missed the mark, and to be honest, it seems like he’s being a bit of a science hipster here. I want to go more in depth, and I’ll do that here. Let’s go through his points
1. Venus was not caused by global warming
Let’s look at what Campbell says: “We have to ask why he thinks Venus is the way it is due to the greenhouse effect — which is another way of saying global warming. Venus is almost 900 degrees Fahrenheit and the clouds are sulfuric acid. Even the most aggressive climate change models and their 20-foot ocean rises don’t predict that for Earth… If this sequel to Cosmos had been made in 1989 the screenwriters of Cosmos would have invoked acid rain on Venus instead of global warming. Regardless, CO2 did not cause the poisonous conditions on Venus; instead, CO2 is an effect of the poisonous conditions on Venus. Invoking the greenhouse effect when talking about Venus is like blaming ocean liners for inventing barnacles.
Okay, but global warming isn’t the same as the greenhouse effect. If it weren’t for the CO2, SO2, and H2O, Earth’s surface temperature would be significantly lower. That is the definition of the greenhouse effect. More technically, the greenhouse effect is when a gas in an atmosphere can absorb heat radiated from a planet surface, which then redirects some of the heat escaping from the planet back towards the surface. This shift the temperature equilibrium to higher than it would without the greenhosue gas. In an exchange on a follow-up on his website, Science 2.0, Campbell says the real culprit is hydrogen escape. (Note: I’m the “Matt” participating in the comment section.) “On Venus gravity, hydrogen is already light so a lack of gravity causes the water problem to go nuts. No water, CO2 goes crazy – but CO2 did not cause the atmosphere of Venus, Tyson knows it, anyone who knows high school atmospheric science knows it…”
Campbell probably overestimates hydrogen escape by itself. Hydrogen escapes from Earth too (we’re predicted to lose our all water due to hydrogen escape within the next billion years). Also, Venus’ surface gravity is about 90% that of Earth’s, so hydrogen shouldn’t experience that much weaker of a pull to the planet that it does here. The chain of cause and effect leading to atmospheric changes on Venus doesn’t mean the greenhouse effect doesn’t describe the current temperature, or ever played an effect in the evolution of Venus’ climate. Even planetary scientists describe Venus’ history as the result of a “runaway greenhouse effect”. Once most of Venus’ water was in the atmosphere, it stayed that way because water vapor is also a greenhouse gas and raised the temperature enough to prevent condensation into massive oceans that could have held on to the water longer. (It’s easier to strip hydrogen from molecules in the atmosphere.) This is also why I don’t buy the idea that this segment relates at all to climate change debates. CO2 is not the only greenhouse gas, and this is typically mentioned in modern discussions about methane, and Tyson didn’t actually mention the concentration of CO2 in Venus’ atmosphere. Campbell takes his concern of framing too far here.
2. The Multiverse is Not Science
Campbell: “Any time a scientist begins a sentence with “Many of us suspect,” it is codespeak for “we sit around and discuss it at the bar.”
Why not just let that go as artistic license? When Carl Sagan was filming the originalCosmos program, physicists Alan Guth and Andrei Linde had not even come up with “inflation” for the Big Bang that Tyson mentions casually. Thus, it would not have made it into the original Cosmos as fact. Too much speculation makes the audience wonder if scientists are going to be trusted guides or another version of Dr. Oz and his Miracle Vegetable of the week. Science doesn’t need to toss in speculation to be interesting, because what we know and therefore don’t know is fascinating enough.”
“The multiverse is not science. It is more like an anthropic secular alternative to a divine origin. It’s not science because it can’t be proved or disproved — it’s just postmodernism with some math. And it’s invoked shortly after the introduction where Tyson tells us to test everything.”
I also kind of cringed when Tyson mentioned a multiverse and it even had a visualization with the spaceship of the imagination. But if you pay attention to the language of the episode, you’ll see that the writers were actually being pretty deliberate. Tyson used “suspect” here. But for the rest of the episode, Tyson never describes a scientific theory as anything less than a fact (which is how scientists treat theories). This means Cosmos is not elevating the idea of a multiverse to the level of accepted scientific theory. And it is true that many physicists and cosmologists “suspect” a multiverse. Also, Campbell seems to only be thinking of a string theory multiverse in his critique. Tyson’s description didn’t specify the “kind” of multiverse, but the description and visualization seemed to suggest one resulting from “chaotic inflation”. That kind of multiverse actually may be testable if we see an “imprint”, and the new gravitational wave measurements suggest chaotic inflation is the inflation model that more closely matches our universe.
3. There is No Sound In Space
Like I said before, there actually isn’t a good defense of this. Tyson wouldn’t accept it in any other show, and I’m surprised he let that happen here.
4. Giordano Bruno Was Not More Important To Science Than Kepler And Galileo
Like I said before “The episode did not claim Bruno was more important than contemporary natural philosophers and empiricists and definitely pointed out that he wasn’t a scientist. Bruno’s ideas, though, do fit in well with the idea of understanding our place in the universe, which was the entire point of the first episode, as stated in like the first five minutes.”
5. The Universe Was Also Not Created in One Year
“On January 1st, we had the Big Bang and on December 31st, I am alive, less than a tiny fraction of a millisecond before midnight. That can’t be right — it took me a whole day just to write this article.
Oh, Cosmos is not being literal? Oddly, a number of religious critics, Tyson included, insist that too many religious people believe the Book of Genesis is taken literally by people who read the Bible. Unless we accept that figurative comparisons help make large ideas manageable, a year is no more accurate than six days — it is instead a completely arbitrary metric invented to show some context for how things evolved.”
Oh my God, seriously? Hank Campbell is trying so hard to not want to be in a culture war that he wound up back in it. First, Tyson is not nearly as involved in the science aspect of the “culture war” as, say, Richard Dawkins. Also, many Americans don’t take the Biblical account of Genesis figuratively. According to a 2012 Gallup poll, 46% of Americans think God created humans instantly in their present form within the last 10,000 years.
All these complaints just seem… odd. Like I said, “science hipster” is the best description I can think of. I was surprised to hear Campbell really liked the second episode. I actually liked that episode less. The description of the evolution of the eye seemed like a just-so story in some steps, and probably would not win over the creationists who argue that “the eye is too complex to have evolved”. I thought the step showing the evolution of the lens seemed HUGE and it wasn’t associated with an organism like most of the other steps were. I feel like it would have been more straightforward to show the variety of eyes in the context of the tree of life, but maybe I say this because I’m not as familiar with evolutionary biology. The visualization of DNA seemed “too busy” at times, and they kept changing schematic representations without explaining it. I get that DNA doesn’t really look as pretty as it does in my old bio textbooks, but I was unsure of what was being represented at times. I thought the comparison of DNA sequences seemed a bit odd without a description of what base pairs are.
The Titan bit also seemed odd. I liked the description of Titan, but didn’t like the idea of the ship of the imagination visiting a hydrothermal vent (or its analogue) there. To me it seemed like the show was saying the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan are as deep as Earth’s oceans, and unless I’m really behind the times, I don’t think we know the depth that much. And we definitely don’t know if there are hydrothermal vents on Titan, and that visualization wasn’t accompanied by Tyson saying we “suspect” or some other phrase that would give it less of a weight than a theory/fact like the multiverse visualization was.